PROOF!!  - They Control the Weather and . . .
They Call it - Solar radiation management: 

Solar radiation management: the governance of research | SRMGI
Some Main Topics of Report
In September 2009, the Royal Society published a report that reviewed ideas for deliberately 
intervening in the climate to counteract global warming - techniques collectively described as 
‘geoengineering’ (Royal Society 2009). The report recommended that the scientific and 
governance challenges posed by geoengineering should be explored in more detail, and 
that future work should take into account the significant differences between the two classes
of methods: carbon dioxide removal (CDR) and solar radiation management (SRM).
As its own contribution to taking forward the 2009 report’s recommendations, in March 2010 
the Royal Society entered into a partnership with the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) and 
TWAS, the academy of sciences for the developing world, to look in greater depth at the 
governance issues raised by research
into SRM methods. This project is known as the Solar Radiation Management Governance 
Initiative (SRMGI).
• it could reduce global temperatures very quickly, within a few months of deployment
• it could reduce (but not eliminate) regional temperature and precipitation changes due to
climate change, with a minority of areas potentially experiencing greater change
• it could be deployed cheaply (relative to the cost of implementing greenhouse gas (GHG) 
emissions reductions) but
• it would mask only some of the effects of increased atmospheric levels of GHGs and thus 
is not comparable to and not a substitute for reductions in GHG emissions
• there would be unanticipated side effects, both physical and socio-political, as there is a 
high level of uncertainty about the impacts of the proposed interventions
• without reductions in the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases any SRM 
intervention would need to be sustained for a long time, and there would be a large and 
rapid climate change if it were terminated suddenly.
1 Also known as sunlight reflection methods or solar geoengineering. 
Some commentators prefer to refer to geoengineering as climate remediation 
or intervention.

The Solar Radiation Management Governance Initiative is co-convened by the following 
Environmental Defense Fund (, a leading US nonprofit organization, creates 
transformational solutions to the most serious environmental problems. EDF links science, economics,
law and innovative private-sector partnerships. See or
The Royal Society is the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence, and is a 
Fellowship of more than 1400 outstanding individuals from all areas of science, mathematics, 
engineering and medicine, who form a global scientific network
of the highest calibre. The Society encourages public debate on key
issues involving science, engineering and medicine, and the use of high- quality science 
advice in policy-making. For more information see
TWAS, the academy of sciences for the developing world, is an autonomous international 
organization based in Trieste, Italy. Its principal aim is to promote scientific capacity and 
excellence for sustainable development in the South. For more information, see

Summary 7
Background 7 
Aims and scope of the report 8 
Emerging conclusions 9
Introduction 11
1.1 Background 11 
1.2 AimsandscopeofSRMGI 11 
1.3 WhyfocusongovernanceofSRM? 14
The motivation for SRM research: goals and concerns 18
2.1 Introduction 18 
2.2 PossiblegoalsofSRMresearch 20 
2.3 ConcernsassociatedwithSRMresearch 20
2.4 Conclusion 22
Definitions and categories 23
3.1 DefiningSRMresearch 23 
3.2 CategorisingSRMresearch 25
General governance considerations 29
4.1 Introduction 29 
4.2 Defininggovernance 29 
4.3 Relevantgovernancemechanisms 30 
4.4 Alternativeapproachestogovernance 35 
4.5 Adaptivedevelopmentofgovernanceinstrumentsandinstitutions 38
4.6 Cross-cuttinggovernanceconsiderations 39
Category-specific governance considerations 45
5.1 Introduction 45 
5.2 Category1:non-hazardousstudiesandcategory2:laboratorystudies 45 
5.3 Category3:smallfieldtrials 47 
5.4 Category4:mediumandlarge-scalefieldtrials 50 
5.5 Category5:deployment 52 
5.6 Conclusion 53
Conclusion 54
6.1 IsSRMresearchspecial? 54 
6.2 Differentiatedgovernance 55 
6.3 Whatmightagoverningentitybelike? 56 
6.4 SRMgovernanceinthefuture 56 
6.5 SRMasaresponsetoclimatechange 56

Contents | 56 |
Solar radiation management: the governance of research
References 57
Appendix 1 60
List of working group, staff list, review panel, stakeholder partners, conference attendees and list of submissions
Additional appendices 67 
Acknowledgements 68